The World at War



1875Treaty of Friendship signed by the chiefs of the Ralik Islands with Germany. Germany establishes a consulate in the islands.
1885October 22 German rule established. Gustav von Oertzen appointed German Commissioner.
1886September 13 German protectorate (Schutzgebiet der Marshall Inseln) proclaimed.
The German administration levies an annual copra tax of 360,000 pounds for the whole of the protectorate. Native chiefs are appointed tax collectors and given 1/3 of the collected revenue.
1887Administration of the Marshall Islands is placed in the hands of the Jaluit Gesellschaft, a joint venture of Hersheim & Kompagnie and Deutsche Handels-und Plantagen Gesellschaft.
1894May 11 Georg Irmer is appointed Landeshauptleute.
1904Population: Approximately 15,000 Micronesians and 81 Europeans including 61 Germans
1905June 30 A typhoon strikes the southern Marshall Islands killing 227 islanders. Another 90 die of starvation as a result of food stores destruction. The hurricane and a tidal wave hit the Jaluit Atoll and Jabor Island hardest, killing 80% of the coco trees.
1906January 18 Eugen Brandeis ends term as last Landeshauptleute of the Marshalls
April 1 Marshall Islands incorporated into the colony of German New Guinea
1907April 30 Vice-Governor and District Commissioner Victor Berg dies while surveying the ruins of Nan Madol on Pohnpei. German records list sunstroke and exhaustion as the cause of death. Pohnpeians maintain that Berg died because he dug up the tombs.
1909Caroline Islanders are hired to work in the Marshalls’ phosphate mines and to collect copra after difficulties are encountered in the use of Chinese contract labor. The District Commissioner for the Ralik and Ratak Island groups reports a head count of the population at 9267, considerably less than previously estimated. The natives report, that in 1907 alone, in the northern Ralik atolls 400 persons died of diseases connected with the cold. Almost everywhere the lack of young men and children is apparent.
1914September 29 Japanese troops occupy Jaluit.
1915May 31 Last German administrators are deported from the Marshall Islands.
1919June 28 Germany signs the Treaty of Versailles and cedes all sovereignty over the Marshall Islands.

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