The World at War

GERMANY - A Brief Period of Stability 1924 – 1929

GERMANY - A Brief Period of Stability Timeline

1924January 1 Hans Dorten President of the Rhine Republic of Bad Ems is exiled to Nice by order of French Premier Raymond Poincaré.
The National Socialist Party (NSDAP) is dissolved following the failure of the Beerhall Putsch and is replaced by the Association of the People of Greater Germany.
January 8 Heinz Orbis, president of the autonomist government formed under French auspices in the Palatinate, is assassinated at Speyer by a member of Edgar Jung's Kampfbund zur Abwehr der pfälzischen (Combat Federation for the Defense of the Palatinate).
January 14 The Dawes Committee meets for the first time in Paris. The Committee is charged with determining the manner in which Germany will pay reparations.
January 15 The Dawes Committee convenes in London to study an overall plan for German economic revival and its erection as a, “rampart against Bolshevism.”
February 12 Freikorps kill 40 Rhenish separatists in the town of Pirmasens near the French border. Premier Poincaré bars the intervention of French troops. The campaign for an autonomous Rhineland ends
General von Seeckt calls for and end to the state of siege.
February 19 The State of Seige declared in September 1923 is lifted.
February 22 Reichsbanner Schwarz-Rot-Gold (Black-Red-Gold) aka the Republikanischer Schutzverband (Republican Defense Federation) is established under the leadership of Otto Hörsing by the Social Democratic, Center and German Democratic parties along with representatives of the trade unions.
February 23 Great Britain lowers duties on goods imported from Germany from 26 to 5%.
February 26 The trial of Adolf Hitler and General Erich von Ludendorff on charges of high treason opens in Munich.
February General von Seeckt, commander of the Reichswehr, divests himself of the emergency powers granted to him during the November 1923 riots.
March 1 The ban on the German Communist Party (KDP) is lifted.
March 3 Turkey and Germany sign a peace treaty.
March 13 President Ebert dissolves the Reichstag at the request of Chancellor Marx after Social Democrats and Communists demand an end to the decrees issued during the state of siege.
March 19 Bertolt Brecht’s play The Life of Edward II of England premiers in Munich. March 24
The United States House of Representatives approves a $10 million credit for German food purchases.
March Martin Bormann is sentenced to a year in prison for complicity with Rudolf Hess in the murder of Walther Kadow. Kadow was suspected of informing on saboteur Leo Schlageter who was executed by the French in May 1923.
April 1 Adolf Hitler is sentenced to 5 years in prison for his role in the Beerhall Putsch.
April 9 The Dawes Plan introduces a revised schedule for German payment of reparations.
April 10 Industrial magnate Hugo Stinnes dies in Berlin at age 54.
April 14 The Dawes Committee publishes a report calling for a new mark to be floated on the foreign exchange market, bankruptcy of the small savers without compensation and increased American capital investments in Germany.
April The Rentenmark is replaced by the Reichsmark at the same gold value and exchange rate with the dollar. $1 US = 4.2 Reichsmarks.
May 4 General election for a new Reichstag: Landbund deputies join the National People’s Party caucus to form the largest block in the assembly. The Communists win an additional 58 seats with a campaign against the Dawes Plan. The Nazis elect 32 deputies in their first general election campaign.
Party - % of Vote Cast - Seats Won/Net Gain or Loss
Social Democratic Party (SPD) - 20.5 % - 100 -2
German National Peoples Party (DNVP) - 19.5% - 95 +24
Center Party - 13.4% - 65 +1
Communist Party (KPD) - 12.6% - 62 +58
German People’s Party (DVP)9.2% - 45 -20
National Socialist Freiheitsbewegung - 6.5% - 32 +32
German Democratic Party (DDP)- 5.7% - 28 -11
Bavarian People’s Party (BVP)3.2% - 16 -5
Bavarian Bauernbund - 2.4% - 10 +10
Landbund - 2% - 10 + 10
Hannover Party - 1.1% - 5 + 5
Others - 3.1% - 4
May 19 The United States loans Germany $100 million.
May 26 Chancellor Wilhelm Marx resigns.
May 28 Nationalist deputy Walraff is elected president of the Reichstag.
May The Peoples Tribunals are abolished in Bavaria.
May 3 President Ebert approves the appointment of a nearly identical cabinet under the continued leadership of Chancellor Marx despite the success of the National People’s Party.
June 6 The Reichstag accepts the Dawes Plan by a vote of 247 to 183.
June 17 French Premier Edouard Herriot decides to abandon the German hostage policy in the occupied Ruhr.
June Julius Streicher and Hermann Esser form the Great Community of the German People, in opposition to the National-Socialist Party (NSDAP), directed by Ludendorff and Gregor Strasser.
July 8 Hitler publishes an opens letter announcing his resignation as President of the National Socialist Party in hopes of gaining his release from prison.
July 16 The London Conference on German reparations opens.
July The Olympic Games are held in Paris. Germany does not participate.
Adolf Hitler begins writing Mein Kampf while still in prison.
August Germany is invited to meet with the Dawes Committee in London. French Premier Herriot, under pressure from Great Britain and the United States, agrees to withdraw from the Ruhr.
August 16 The London Conference concludes with the adoption of the Dawes Plan which establishes German reparations payments in progressive annuities of 1 to 2.5 billion gold marks.
August 17 French and Belgian troops withdraw from Offenburg and Appenweier in the Ruhr.
August 29 The Reichstag approves the Dawes Plan. The majority of German National People’s Party deputies are in favor of the plan. The Communists and Nazis reject it.The German State Railways are privatized.
August 30 Allied control of German shipping ends.
The Reichsbank becomes the national bank again after new legislation grants it autonomy from government and authorizes it to issue the Reichsmark.
August 31 Berliner Illustrierte Zeitung announces that the new fashion season will feature the, "masculinisation of woman" with the short boyish hair, top hats and men's coats all the rage.
September 1 The Dawes Plan goes into effect. After an initial payment of 200 million Reichmarks in 1925, Germany’s annual reparations will steadily increase from 1.2 billion to 2.5 billion Reichmarks in 1929. The revenues are to be raised by indirect taxes; taxation of transport, incomes of the Reichsbahn which is to become a joint stock company independent of the State and internationalized and the incomes of the large industrial companies. American Gilbert Parker is appointed by the Reparations Commission to supervise German monetary policy and ensure payment.
September 3 Germany signs a contract with the Soviet Union to purchase Russian petroleum.
September 7 180,000 people expelled from the Ruhr during the Franco-Belgian occupation are allowed to return.
September 29 Germany seeks admission to the League of Nations.
October 10 The Dawes Committee arranges an immediate loan of 800 million gold marks to Germany. The United States provides half and Great Britain a quarter of the funds.
October 12 Zeppelin LZ 126 departs Friedrichshafen for New York.
October 15 Zeppelin LZ 126 lands in New York.
October 16 Zeppelin LZ 126 is rechristened the Los Angeles.
October 20 President Ebert dissolves the Reichstag at the request of Chancellor Marx who is unable to maintain a majority.
October 21 A mandatory arbitration commission is established by the Government of resolve labor disputes.
November 4 Intermezzo by Richard Strauss premiers at the Dresden Opera.
November 7 The 8 hour work day is introduced in the Saar.
November 28 Thomas Mann’s The Magic Mountain is published.
November 30 French and Belgian troops withdraw from the Ruhr.
December 1 An Anglo-German trade agreement is signed.
December 7 General elections for a new Reichstag: Social Democrats and Nationalists make major gains at the expense of the Communists and Nazis.
Party - % of Vote Cast - Seats Won/Net Gain or Loss
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 26% - 131 +31
German National People’s Party (DNVP)20.5% - 103 +8
Center Party 13.6% - 69 +4
German People’s Party (DVP)10.1% - 51 +6
Communists (KPD) 9% - 45 -17
German Democratic Party (DDP) 6.3% - 32 +4
Bavarian People’s Party (BVP)3.7% - 19 +3
Bavarian Bauernbund 3.3% - 17 +7
National Socialist Freiheitsbewegung 3% - 14 -18
Landbund 1.6% - 8 -2
Hannover Party 0.9% - 4 -1
December 15 The Cabinet of Social Democratic Chancellor Marx resigns.
December 20 Adolf Hitler is released on parole from Landsberg Prison after serving eight months of a five year sentence for high treason.
December 26 The Weimar Bauhaus closes. Frankfurt and Dessau bid a reopening.
December 30 Luigi Pirandello gains notoriety for his play Six Characters in Search of an Author directed by Max Reinhardt.
December A court in Magdeburg fines a journalist who accused President Ebert of high treason for his part in a January 1918 Berlin strike while at the same time declaring Ebert technically guilty.
1925January 9 Unilateral enforcement of the Treaty of Versailles ends.
January 10 The Allied Council withdraws support for a quick evacuation of the Rhineland declaring that Germany has not respected the disarmament clauses of the Versailles Treaty.
The Saar withdraws from the customs union with France.
January 16 Finance Minister Hans Luther succeeds Wilhelm Marx as Chancellor. A coalition cabinet of the Right (Center, DDP, DNVP) is formed despite the Social Democrats election victory. Luther retains Stresemann as Foreign Minister and Gessler at Defense. He gains the support of the SPD for his foreign policy.
February 1 The Red Veterans Front, a Communist (KDP) paramilitary organization, meets for the first time at Berlin. The group proposes to gather “proletarian forces” to fight militarism and fascism. February 11
A coal mine disaster at Dortmund kills 136.
February 14 The ban on Hitler’s Nazi Party (NSDAP) is lifted.
Bavaria legalizes the Communist Party which has been banned since the 1918 revolution.
February 27 Adolf Hitler makes his first public appearance since his release from prison. He is allowed to reenter politics but his required to use legal means to reclaim power.
February 28 Friedrich Ebert, first president of the Weimar Republic, dies in Berlin at age 54.
February The Barmat Scandal compromises numerous Social Democratic leaders and elected representatives.
March 24 The Dessau municipal council agrees to accommodate the Bauhaus.
March 26 A coal mine accident at Merlenbach in the Saar kills 51.
March 17 Karl Jarres, a rightist supported by the German People’s Party leads the presidential race after first round balloting which draws 68.9% of the eligible voters to the polls. Despite the strong showing by Karl Jarres, the leaders of the Right call on Marshal Hindenburg to replace him. The Social Democrats (SPD) decides to support the Centerist Wilhelm Marx in order to reestablish the old Weimar coalition.
Candidate - Party - % of Vote Cast
Karl Jarres - German People’s Party (DVP)38.8%
Otto Braun - Social Democrat (SPD) 29%
Wilhelm Marx - Center Party 14.5%
Ernst Thälmann - Communist (KPD)7%
Willy Hugo Hellpach - German Democrat (DDP)5.8%
Held - Bavarian People’s Party (BVP)3.7%
General Erich Ludendorff - extreme right 1.1%
March Gregor Strasser agrees to head the Nazi Party in Northern Germany as long as he is treated as Hitler’s equal.
April 3 Great Britain renounces its right to collect reparations.
April 5 250,000 Berlin metalworkers go on strike.
April 7 Hitler renounces his Austrian citizenship to avoid the risk of expulsion from Germany.
April 26 The second round of the presidential election draws a 77.6% turnout. Marshal Hindenburg narrowly defeats Centerist Wihelm Marx by a 48.3 to 45.3% margin. Communist candidate Ernst Thälmann trails with 6.4% of the vote.
May 5 The coal miners union of Rhineland-Westphalia reorganized.
May 12 President Hindenburg takes office. Chancellor Hans Luther remains as head of government.
May 16 Arnolt Bronnen’s The Rhine Rebels, previously banned by the Allies, premiers in Germany.
May 18 Expressionst director, Georg Wilhelm Pabst’s film Die freudlose Gasse (Joyless Street), starring Greta Garbo, is released in Berlin.
June 4 The Allies announce their conditions for evacuation of the Rhineland at a meeting in London.
June 6 Official celebrations in Munich and Berlin mark the 50th birthday of writer Thomas Mann.
June 8 The Rhine Security Pact is signed. Germany guarantees the inviolability of the the Belgian and French borders.
June 16 France agrees to a German security pact proposal.
July 13 French and Belgian troops begin to withdraw from the Rhineland in accordance with the Dawes Plan.
July 16 London Conference on German war reparations opens.
July 18 Adolf Hitler’s autobiography, Mein Kampf (My Struggle) is published.
July 22 Political prisoners sentenced before June 15, 1915 are granted an amnesty.
July 31 French and Belgian troops complete their withdrawal from the Ruhr.
July An exhibition of Neue Sachlichkeit (New Objectivity) opens at Mannheim.
August 4 Heavy summer rain causes flooding in Silesia and Czechoslovakia.
August 14 A Franco-German customs treaty is signed at Paris.
August 23 Rudolf Caracciola, driving a Mercedes, wins the the mountain automobile race for touring cars on the Col Klausen.
August 28 German driver August Momberger wins the first postwar international auto race is held in Germany.
September 1 The Executive Committee of Comitern calls on the German Communist Party (KDP) to end its fight against the Social Democrats.
September 9 The Foreign Minister receives a letter from the former Kaiser Wilhelm II calling for a revision of Germany’s eastern borders including the recovery of Danzig and Upper Silesia and the annexation of Austria.
Hugo Preuss, who drafted the Constitution of the Weimar Republic, dies in Berlin at age 65.
September 11 Hans Breitensträtter takes the European Heavyweight boxing championship from Paul Samson-Körner.
September 15 Germany is invited to the security conference at Locarno.
October 5 - 17 The Locarno Conference on European Security: Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Poland and Germany sign a treaty of mutual guarantee;
October 15 Germany signs the Rhine Pact with Great Britain, France and Belgium. Germany renounces the use of force on the western border. All parties agree to submit their disputes to international arbitration. Stresemann obtains Allied agreement to withdraw from Cologne and a seat in the League of Nations. Germany refuses to acknowledge the eastern borders.
October 12 A German – Soviet trade treaty is signed in Moscow.
October 25 Three German National People’s Party (DNVP) deputies resign in protest of the Locarno Pact.
November 1 The National Conference of the German Communist Party (KPD), acting on orders from Comintern, names Ernst Thälmann General Secretary.
November 9 Hitler’s Nazis establish the Schutzstaffel SS security aka "the black shirts".
November 10 -12 The Brussels Conference of European Communist Parties denounces the Locarno Pact as a western bourgeois plot against the Soviet Union.
November 25 The Reichstag ratifies the Locarno Pact.
November 28 The Reich Council ratifies the Locarno Pact and German membership in the League of Nations.
December 1 The Locarno Pact is signed at London.
British troops withdraw from Cologne after a 7 year occupation.
December 2 I. G. Farben, the largest European chemical trust, is established.
The Employers Federation urges limitation of social welfare programs and a freeze on salaries.
December 5 Chancellor Hans Luther resigns.
December 10 James Franck and Gustav Ludwig Hertz share the Nobel Prize in Physics, "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an electron upon an atom".
December 24 The Reichstag restores property sequestered in 1918 to the nobility. The Communists propose to distribute it only to the needy.
December Negotiations for a reconstitution of the grand coalition fails. Social Democrat Otto Braun is eager to rejoin the Government but President Hindenburg opposes SPD participation. Chancellor Luther forms a second centrist coalition of the DDP, Center and DVP in a minority.
During the Year The German Socialist Workers Party in Poland (DSAP) is established.
1926January 6 Lufthansa, Deustche Luft Hansa AG, is formed by a merger of Deutscher Aero Lloyd and Junkers Luftverkehr.
January 17 The Left demands a referendum on a measure to expropriate aristocratic estates. President Hindenburg leads the Right in opposing the measure.
January 20 Hans Luther forms a second government. Gustav Stresemann retains the foreign affairs portfolio.
January 25 The Gloria Palast Cinéma opens in Berlin with a screening of Friedrich W. Murnau’s film Tartuffe.
February 1 Cologne celebrates the withdrawal of British and Belgian troops.
February 8 Germany requests admission to the League of Nations.
February 10 Poland and France oppose German membership in the League of Nations.
February 11 Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann clashes with Italian dictator Mussolini over the fate of the South Tyrol.
February 14 The NSDAP meets in Bamberg. Hitler’s opponents are not invited to attend. The Führer expounds on the intangible character of the Party’s 1920 program for five hours. Gregor Strasser’s Kampfbund du Nord and its program for socialization are terminated on Hitler’s initiative. February 20
Actress Marlène Dietrch wins plaudits for her stage performance in the drama Duel on the Lido.
March 9 The League of Nations begins debate on Germany’s request for membership.
March 13 German membership in the League of Nations is opposed by Brazil and Spain.
March 21 Berliner Illustrierte devotes an issue to the finest buildings in Germany featuring the newest architectural wonders of Düsseldorf and Cologne.
March 24 Secrets of A Soul, a psychoanalytic film by Georg W. Pabst, premiers in Berlin.
March 26 Former Chancellor Constantin Fehrenbach dies in Freiburg at age 74.
April 1 Foreign Minister Gustave Stresemann, speaking at a Berlin ceremony marking Otto von Bismarck’s birthday, declares that Germany will return to its position as a great power bit by bit.
April 4 Rightwing industrialist August Thyssen dies at Landsberg, Westphalia estate at age 84.
April 9 In Munich, Joseph Goebbels delivers his first major political speech to the great satisfaction of Hitler.
April 10 A press communiqué declares that the House of Hohenzollern will pay 7 million marks in taxes to the German Reich.
April 16 Unemployed workers are granted 39 weeks of social assistance payments.
April 24 Gustav Stresemann and Nikolai Krestinski sign a German - Soviet Friendship Treaty promising neutrality between the two countries in case of aggression against either by a third country.
April The Stinnes and Thyssen interests form a steel trust.
May 4 The Communists (KPD) amd the Social Democrats (SPD) begin gathering signatures to force a referendum on their proposal to dispossess the landed aristocracy and redistribute the property to their tenants.
May 5 Chancellor Luther, under pressure from Hindenburg, orders German diplomatic missions to fly the black, white and red commercial ensign of imperial Germany rather than the black, red and gold banner of the republic.
Sergei Eisenstein’s film Potemkin is shown in Germany for the first time.
May 6 The Reichstag rejects the Communists’ proposal to redistribute the estates of the landed aristocrats.
May 7 President Hindenburg’s campaign in favor of the imperial flag sparks widespread protest.
May 12 Chancellor Luther resigns after losing a vote of confidence on the flag question. The rightwing German Democrats (DDP) join the opposition.
May 13 - 16 Konrad Adenauer, Center Party mayor of Cologne, is asked to form a government but fails to do so.
May 17 Center Party leader Wilhelm Marx returns to the Chancellorship and forms a rightwing minority government. Stresemann remains foreign minister.
The Left’s signature gathering campaign closes. 12.5 million voters, three times the required number, have signed petitions to force a vote on the Social Democratic and Communist supported proposal to confiscate the estates of the landed gentry.
Berlin police seize documentary evidence of a plot to overthrow the republic and restore the monarchy during raids on the homes of Pan-Germanist League President H. Class and industrialists Vögler and Kirdorf. President Hindenburg covers up the affair but abandons his project for reintroduction of the imperial flag.
May 22 Adolf Hitler gains total control over the NSDAP. He reserves the sole power to nominate the party leadership and creates a tribunal to maintain discipline in the ranks.
May 24 Paavo Nurmi “the Flying Finn” sets a new world record of 8 minutes 25 seconds for the 3000 meter run at a meet in Berlin.
June 17 A nationwide uniform traffic code is instituted.
June 20 The Left’s proposal to expropriate the property of the landed aristocracy is defeated. The measure wins only 15 of the 20 million votes required for passage of the referendum. The former nobility retain the right to compensation under Article 76 of the Weimar Constitution.
June 21 The national congress of the NSDAP opens in Weimar with a parade by 6,000 SA stormtroopers.
July 4 The Nazi Party Congress, meeting in Weimar, inaugurates an oath taking ceremony patterned after Italian fascist practice. Members are required to swear their allegiance and touch the flag of November 9, 1923. Mussolini unequivocally condemns the anti-Semitism and racism of the Nazis and expresses fear of a revived Pan-Germanism.
July 16 Exhibition of Sergei Eisenstein’s film Potemkin is prohibited throughout Germany.
July The former nobility are discretely compensated for their property losses. Ex-Kaiser Wilhelm II is granted 97,000 hectares, the castle of Blomberg and 15 million marks.
August 6 The League of Nations grants a permanent seat to Germany by a unanimous vote.
August 14 France proposes that Belgium restore the districts of Eupen and Malmedy to Germany.
August 29 The NSDAP holds a major rally in Nuremberg.
September 8 Germany enters the League of Nations. Gustav Stresemann demands equal rights for his country and an end to restrictions on military power imposed by the Versailles Treaty.
September 10 The Briand-Stresemann Era of rapprochement begins with a pair of noteworthy pacifist speeches by the French and German statesmen delivered to the League of Nations at Geneva.
Septemer 11 German Otto Peltzer defeats Paavo Nurmi of Finland and sets a new world record of 3 minutes 51 seconds in the 1500 meter run at meet in Berlin.
September 16 The Social Democrats abandon their position of tolerance with respect to the Government. Scheidemann denounces German companies who are engaged in clandestine arms sales to the Soviet Union. The Right continues to support the German-Soviet Friendship Treaty as necessary balance with respect to rapprochement with the West.
September 17 Briand and Stresemann discuss the possibility of a Franco-German rapprochement at a conference in Thoiry, France. Stresemann seeks an end to the occupation and restrictions on German military power along with the return of the Saar. He offers the French an economic inducement of 1.5 million reichmarks in economic assistance. Economic cooperation with the Soviet Union is also discussed.
September 25 Bertolt Brecht’s play Man for Man is produced in Düsseldorf. September
Hitler writes the tax authorities, “I do not have the means to pay my taxes. At the moment, I am forced to get a loan in order to live.”
October 1 The Thyssen interests and other representatives of heavy industry take a position against the republican regime.
October 3 The news is spread that Wilhelm Hohenzollern, eldest son of the former Crown Prince, was authorized to attend army maneuvers without prior consultation of the Reichstag. The Left protests forcefully. Hans von Seeckt, Chief of Staff since 1920, is dismissed.
October 14 Faust, a film by Friedrich W. Murnau, his ninth in six years, released in Berlin.
October 30 Max Reinhardt celebrates 25 years as a director.
Autumn General Erich von Ludendorff, supported by his wife, doctor and philosopher Mathilde von Kemnitz, creates the Tannenbergbund, a "German Germanic religious community", an association fighting "supra-official forces", namely the Jesuits, the freemasons, the Jews and the Marxists.
November 1 Joseph Goebbels becomes chief of the Nazi Party’s Red Section in Berlin.
November 2 Italy bans the last German newspaper circulating there.
November 7 Goebbels leaves Elberfeld for Berlin. He finds a cash strapped group of scarcely 300 members. The Nazis are without support in Berlin.
November 26 Hitler and Goebbels visit the local National Socialist group at Hattingen in the Ruhr. They are welcomed by Victor Lutze, chief of the Ruhr district.
November 30 The international steel cartel established by Belgium, France, Luxembourg and Germany agrees to increase overall production for the forthcoming trimester from 27,827,000 tons to 29,287,000. Each of the four countries is granted an increased quota. German socialists denounce the cartel as, “a danger to the working class of the first order and a dangerous monopoly.”
Aristide Briand’s foreign policy is the subject of a contentious debate in the French Chamber of Deputies. Edouard Soulier, Deputy from the Seine, declares that, “in Germany they are manufacturing poison gas, metal airplanes and all sorts of major armaments.” Briand prophesizes, “There will be no lasting rapprochement between France and Germany, there will be no rapprochement”.
December 3 The Reichstag passes a law for the protection of youth from pornographic literature.
December 5 Germany participates in the International Automobile Show at Brussels for the first time.
December 9 Gustav Stresemann and Aristide Briand of France share the Nobel Peace Prize with for their work on the Locarno Pact.
December 10 Mein Kampf, Volume II by Adolf Hitler is published.
Bauhaus founder, Walter Gropius leaves Weimar for Dessau.
December 16 Social Democratic leader Scheidemann requests Gessler’s resignation as head of the Reichswehr in a disagreement over the fabrication arms in the Soviet Union. He denounces military and technical collaboration between Germany and the Soviets.
December 17 The German National People’s Party (DNVP) withdraws its support for the government. Chancellor Marx and his cabinet tender their resignation.
December 29 Germany and Italy sign a trade treaty.
December The NSDAP forms the Hitlerjugend (Hitler Youth).
Devaluation of the franc forces France to abandon the Stresemann Project.
During the Year The German Government presents Poland with a bill for 521,000,000 marks in compensation for the loss of Eastern Silesia in 1921.
1927January 9 Houston Stewart Chamberlain, British born German racial theorist, dies in Bayreuth at age 72.
January 10 Metropolis, a film by Fritz Lang, premiers in Berlin.
January 11 Berlin police breakup an international drug trafficking network
January 13 Germany signs an accord with Italy calling for construction of an autobahn linking Hamburg and Milan.
January 24 Legislation aimed at stemming the spread of venereal diseases is introduced in the Reichstag.
January 29 Wilhelm Marx forms a new government more favorable to his rightwing partners in the German National People’s Party (DNVP). The German Democrats (DDP), except Gessler, are excluded from the coalition. Gustav Stresemann remains Foreign Affairs Minister. The appointments of Von Keudell to the Interior Ministry and General von Schleicher, a close associate of President Hindenburg, as political advisor to the Minister of the Reichswehr, are seen a victory for the adversaries of the republican regime. The Marx Government embarks on a program of industrial concentration and rationalization of production.
January 31 The Inter-Allied Control Commission issues a positive report on German disarmament efforts.
February 5 The Conference of Ambassadors, meeting in Paris, agrees to allow fortification of Germany’s southern and eastern borders on condition that the remainder of the disarmament program remain in effect.
February 28 The Inter-Allied Control Commission on German Disarmament is dissolved.
February The Government prohibits recruitment of Nazi Party members into the army and declares that the Party is dedicated to the overthrow of the constitutional state.
March 4 A trans-Atlantic cable linking Emden with New York completed.
March 9 Bavaria lifts the prohibition on public appearances by Hitler.
March 23 Goebbels’ supporters clash with Communists at the Lichterfelde-Ochs railway station.
April Nearly two million workers are unemployed as a result of the rationalization program.
Civil servants are granted a salary increase.
May 1 Adolf Hitler holds his first political meeting in Berlin despite the ban on his public appearance outside of Bavaria.
May 13 “Black Friday”, the economic collapse begins. The number of unemployed will rise from 380,000 to 5,500,000 by 1933. May 22 - 27
The Social Democratic Party Congress meets in Kiel. The Congress approves the rationalization program as an essential condition for the improvement of the country’s economic well being. The revolutionary theses are abandoned. Hilferding pleads in favor of conquering the state in order to legislate rather than destroy it. Those favoring merger with the Communist Party are in the minority.
May An emergency law increases the work week from 57 to 59 hours. The Communist Party agitates for an eight hour workday.
June 6 American aviator Clarence Chamberlain completes the second nonstop trans-Atlantic flight aboard Miss Columbia. He completes the 6,294 kilometer journey from New York to Eisleben in 43 hours. Charles Levine, sponsor of the project, rides along on the flight.
June 18 The Nürburgring automobile racing track opens.
June 29 Gustav Stresemann accepts the Nobel Peace Prize during a trip to Oslo.
June The trade unions win a 5% wage increase, improved health care benefits and a system of unemployment insurance.
Gregor Strasser meets with Hitler in Berlin at which time he suggests that leadership of the SS be conferred on Heinrich Himmler.
July 4 Josef Goebbels founds the National Socialist newspaper Der Angriff (The Attack) to compete with the Strasser Brothers' paper. Hitler tells the furious Strasssers that he cannot control Goebbels.
July 6 The Convention on the Instruments of War regulates the last disarmament condition of the Versailles Treaty.
July 9 A hurricane devastates Saxony leaving 150 dead and 359 injured.
July 16 The Reich's Institute for Employment Assistance and Unemployment Insurance is created by law.
July 31 The leaders of the German League for the Rights of Man declare that France, “is authorized to remain mistrustful” of German disarmament.
August 3 Telephone service between Berlin and Buenos Aires is inaugurated.
August 4 Cornélius Edzard and Risticz set a new world record for duration of flight at 53 hours 23 minutes.
August 7 Lina Radke-Bratschauer sets the world record in the 800 meters at 2 minutes 23.8 seconds.
August 19 - 21 The Nazis stage A Day of Awakening at Nuremberg. 30,000 SA stormtroopers parade in the streets.
Hitler meets with Rhineland industrialist Emil Kirdorf in Munich. The magnate agrees to support Hitler’s course of action.
August Agronomist Walther Darré, who believes that German agriculture is the true locomotive of Europe, joins the Nazi Party.
September 16 President Hindenburg, speaking at the unveiling of the Tannenberg Battle Monument, declares that Germany did not start the First World War. The statement is a renunciation of article 231 of the Versailles Treaty.
September 23 Germany joins the Permanent International Court of Arbitration in The Hague.
The German ambassador to Washington, Baron Ago von Maltzahn, is killed in an airplane crash.
September 30 Captain Erwin Rommel founds an association of veterans of the Battle of Wurttemberg.
September Walter Frank, a young Nazi theorist, graduates from the University of Munich. His thesis expounds on the works of 19th century anti-Semite Adolf Stoecker.
October 2 The celebration of President Hindenburg’s 80th birthday is the pretext for numerous demonstrations by the militarist and imperialists. The Stahlhelm (Steel Helmet), a nationalist paramilitary organization, financed by the industrialists and landowners presents the Marshal with a gift of the Neudeck estate in East Prussia.
October 5 Krupp signs a licensing agreement with the Soviet Union.
October 29 The Coal & Chemical Company, a cartel encompassing 2/3rds of the Ruhr mines, is formed.
October Carl von Ossietzky becomes editor in chief of the journal Welbühne.
November 8 The pleniary assembly of the French National Socialist Party opens in Paris under the chairmanship of Gustave Herbette.
November 23 The President of the German Industrial Employers Syndicate demands that Chancellor Marx reduce wages and benefits.
November 24 Gustav Stresemann comments that the modernization program in the major cities gives one, “the impression that Germany had won the war.”
November Soviet representative Litvinov proposes that the League of Nations take measures to prevent the revival of German militarism.
December 1 The first transmission of photographs by radio-telegraph in Europe is made between Berlin and Vienna.
December 8 German statesman and pacifist Ludwig Quidde is awarded a share of the Nobel Peace Prize.
Heinrich Otto Wieland is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for, "for his investigations of the constitution of the bile acids and related substances".
December 31 The film Der Grosse Sprung (The Great Leap), starring Leni Riefenstahl and the last in a series of works shot in the Alpes by Arnold Frank, is the cinematographic success of the year in Germany.
1928January 14 Defense Minister Gessler is forced to resign in the wake of a scandal involving the investment of Army funds in industry and other speculation.
January 19 President Hindenburg, without consultation, personally names General Wilhelm Groener, who advised the Kaiser to abdicate in 1918, Defense Minister.
January 29 Germany and Lithuania agree to accept a negotiated settlement of their dispute over Memel.
January Former chancellor Hans Luther becomes president of the League for the Renewal of the Reich, which favors creation of a centralized state.
Unemployment drops slightly to 1,862,000.
February 20 The United States Senate approves the return of properties confiscated during the war to Germany.
February 26 Willy Messerschmitt’s first large passenger plane crashes during a test flight.
February The Marx Government collapses over the school question. The Center Party has introduced a bill aimed at restoring Catholic denominational schools in the states which have created competing secular systems. The Center declares the coalition ruptured in the face of opposition from the German Peoples Party (DVP). In addition, the Left agitates for centralized government while the Right defends the regions.
March 5 The NSDAP becomes the largest party in Bavaria.
March 10 American President Calvin Coolidge signs an executive order allocating $300 million to compensate German companies and nationals whose properties were seized during the First World War.
March 31 The Reichstag is dissolved. The opposition's electoral campaign will focus on the Government's cruiser construction project. The Communists demand a referendum on the issue.
April 13 Three German aviators, Captain Koehl, Commandant Fitzmaurice and Baron von Hunefeld, takeoff from Dublin on board the airplane Bremen bound for New York and disappear over the North Atlantic.
April Hitler directs his party towards an alliance with the great industrialists touching off a conflict with the socialist faction of the NSDAP led by Gregor Strasser and W. Stennes.
Spring Martin Bormann, treasurer of the NSDAP in Thuringia, becomes a member of the SA high command SA.
May 19 Philosopher and sociologist Max Scheler dies in Frankfurt at age 54.
May 20 General Election: 75.6 % participation (the lowest since the constitution of the republic).
Party - % of Vote Cast - Seats won - Net Gain or Loss
Social Democratic Party (SPD) 29.8 % - 153 + 22
German National People’s Party (DNVP)14.2 - 73 - 30
Center Party 12.1 - 62 - 7
Communists (KPD)10.6 - 54 + 9
German People’s Party (DVP)8.7 - 45 - 6
German Democratic Party (DDP)4.9 - 25 - 7
Bavarian Bauernbund - 4.5 - 23 + 6
Bavarian People’s Party (BVP)3.1 - 16 - 3
National Socialist German Workers Party (NSDAP)2.6 - 12 + 12
Landvolk 1.9 - 10 + 10
Peasants Party 1.6 - 8 + 8
Landbund 0.6 - 3 - 5
Hannover Party 0.6 - 3 - 1
Others 5.6 - 4 + 4 Robert Ley, a friend of Hitler, is elected to the Prussian Assembly.
May The electoral campaign for seats on the Bavarian Regional Council opens. The Social Democrats accuse Hitler and NSDAP candidate Ritter von Epp of accepting contributions from Mussolini in exchange for a free hand in the South Tyrol.
June 12 The Social Democratic Minister President of Prussia Otto Braun faces a challenge from with the party led by Hermann Müller.
June 13 Chancellor Wilhelm Marx resigns.
June 28 Social Democrat Hermann Müller is named chancellor. He forms a cabinet including Wissel, who has the confidence of the trade unions, Severing who leaves the Prussian Government and Hilferding (SPD). The German People’s Party (DVP) is represented by Curtius and Stresemann who remains in charge of foreign affairs while the German Democrats (DDP) hold two portfolios and the Center Party only one. The cruiser construction project is maintained.
June Adolf Hitler authors a new book on the subject of the Italian controlled SouthTyrol which he dictates to Max Amman. The work is not published.
July 3 Chancellor Müller presents his program to the Reichstag.
July 28 Olympic Games open in Amsterdam. Germany athletes participate for the first time since the World War.
July The number of unemployed workers drops to 1,012,000.
Summer The Communist Party Congress authorizes development of the Third Phase Theory according to which the end of the stable period of capitalism must lead to a Communist offensive and therefore to a break with the Social Democrats.
Julius Streicher is removed from his teaching post for criticism of the Weimar Republic and the pornographic and anti-Semitic caricatures published in his newspaper, Die Sturmer.
August 1 German pilots are deployed to the Soviet Union as technical advisors within the framework of secret military cooperation between Berlin and Moscow. General Werner von Blomberg, an admirer of Bolshevism, travels to Russia on a frequent basis.
August 10 The Social Democratic ministers approve construction of cruiser A but the party renounces the project in the subsequent electoral campaign.
August 12 The 8th Olympiad closes in Amsterdam. German athletes competing for the first time since the war win nine gold medals.
August 27 Gustav Stresemann signs the Briand-Kellogg Pact outlawing war.
August 30 Wilhelm Wien 1911 recipient of the Nobel Prize in Physics "for his discoveries regarding the laws governing the radiation of heat" dies in Munich at age 64.
August 31 The Three Penny Opera by Bertolt Brecht and Kurt Weill premiers in Berlin.
August After having stabilized at about 650,000, the number of unemployed begins to rise.
September 16 The London negotiations on the evacuation of the Rhineland end.
September 28 Following Bavaria, the prohibition on public appearances by Adolf Hitler is lifted throughout the Reich.
September 29 The first postwar rearmament program is adopted by Germany.
October 4 - 16 The cruiser project is the subject of fear debate in the Reichstag. The Communist demand for a referendum on the issue is rejected.
October 11 The largest dirigeible ever built, the 232 meter long Graf Zeppelin, departs Friedrichshafen with 57 passengers bound for the United States.
October 15 The Graf Zeppelin lands at Lakehurst, New Jersey.
October 25 Hugenberg, President of Krupp and magnate of the press and cinema, becomes President of the German National People’s Party (DNVP) with the backing of the Pan-Germanists. An insatiable adversary the régime, who favors a foreign policy offensive, he also wants to overthrow the constitutional order. October 31
The Government Arbitration Commission and Labor Minister Wissel put an end to the strikes in the Ruhr metalworks by imposing a wage increase.
November 1 The employers of the Ruhr metal industry respond to the imposed wage settlement by laying off 213 metallurgists.
November 3 A zeppelin flight from Berlin to Friedrichshafen costs 1000 marks.
November 4 - 5 Ernst Thälmann denounces the policies of the Social Democrats as, “social fascism”, at the national conference of the Communist Party. Dissidents are expelled from the KPD en masse.
November 14 During a press conference, Foreign Minister Stresemann declares that Germany seeks loans and that the withdrawal of American capital would force the country into bankruptcy.
November 15 Hitler names Josef Goebbels head of propaganda services for the NSDAP.
November 19 Foreign Minister Gustav Stresemann declares that Berlin will not exchange the Rhineland for a reduction in reparations payments.
November 23 Boxer Max Schmeling makes his American debut defeating Joe Monte in a fight at New York.
November The employers of the Ruhr lock out the metalworkers.
December Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry, "for the services rendered through his research into the constitution of the sterols and their connection with the vitamins"
December 5 Conductor Wilhelm Furtwängler refuses an offer to lead the orchestra of the Berlin Opera to accept one offered by Vienna.
December 20 The number of unemployed climbs to 2,000,000.
December 21 Government arbitrators step in to settle the continuing conflict in the Ruhr metal industry. Prussian Interior Minister Severing imposes a ridiculously low wage on the unions which accept the settlement along with the rancor the rank and file workers towards the Social Democrats and the General Confederation of German Trade Unions.
During the Year Monsignor Kaas succeeds Adam Stegerwald as head of the Center Party.
1929January 6 Adolf Hitler names Heinrich Himmler Reichsführer SS and sole head of the SS sections.
January 17 The first European screening of sound motion pictures, the short features Ramona and Das Letstz Lied (The Letstz Song), takes place at the Tauentzienpalast in Berlin.
January Prussian interior minister Severing, a Social Democrat, takes measures against the Communist threat, banning meetings and seizing the KDP’s publications. Claus Heim leads a peasant uprising in Schleswig-Holstein. The rebels refuse to pay taxes, oppose the auction of tax delinquent properties with force and setoff a number of bombs.
The unemployed number 2,850,000.
February 4 A cold front batters Europe. Temperatures fall to -34°Centigrade in Silesia.
February 9 A committee of experts led by American banker Owen Young meets in Paris to discuss a revision of the Dawes Plan for payment of German war reparations. Hjalmar Schacht, President of the Central Bank of the Reich, and the German industrialists are in attendance.
February 14 Munich authorities ban an appearance by Black American artist Josephine Baker on grounds of “public indecency”. February
The unemployed number 3,200,000.
February 18 Soviet exile Leon Trotsky, facing expulsion from Turkey, requests asylum from France and Germany.
March 7 Several people are killed or injured in clashes between Nazis and Communists in Wöhrden.
March 15 Hitler delivers a speech in Munich calling on the Army to join the ranks of the NSDAP.
March 17 American auto giant General Motors announces purchase of Opel AG the largest manufacturer of automobiles in Germany.
March President Hindenburg, in a series of private interviews, declares himself opposed to the parliamentary regime and in favor of authoritarian government.
April 1 Waldeck West is reunited with Prussia following a plebiscite.
April 4 Pioneer automotive engineer Carl Friedrich Benz dies in Landenburg at age 85.
April 11 Germany joins France in refusing to grant asylum to Leon Trotsky.
April 13 Communist propaganda accuses social democracy of being, “ the guardian of the the German bourgeoisie, the battering ram which opens the way to Fascism.”
April 21 Erich Muhsam directs a Berlin performance of his play Sacco and Vanzetti.
April The Social Democrat administrator of Berlin, Zörgiebel, prohibits the annual May Day parade.
May 1 Bloody May Day in Berlin: the demonstrations turn into a battle between the Communists and the forces of public order. Eight policemen are killed and 140 injured. The Social Democrats approve repression of their extreme left.
May 2 - 3 “Bloody days”, the Communists erect barricades in Berlin-Wedding and the police respond with savage repression. Thirty one people are killed and 1,200 injured. Die Rote Fahne (The Red Flag) the official journal of the Communist Party of Germany is banned for three weeks.
May 6 The Roter Frontkämpferbund (League of Red Frontline Veterans), a Communist paramilitary organization, is dissolved in Prussia.
May 12 The NSDAP elects 5 deputies to the legislature in Saxony.
May 26 Willi Nevenhofen pilots a Junker W 34 to a new world altitude record of 12,739 meters.
May The Social Democratic Party Congress meets in Magdeburg. The left wing adopts a radical position in favor of disarmament, confirming its anti-militarist tendency.
June 7 The Young Plan fixing the amount of German reparations is signed by the Allies in Paris. This plan replaces the Dawes Plan. The counter-proposals offered by the Central Bank President Hjalmar Schacht’s German delegation are rejected. The program faces stiff opposition in Germany which faces a debt of 34.5 billion marks to be repaid over a 59 year period. The German railways are to be held as collateral by an international bank until 1988.
June 9 - 15 The Communist Party Congress meeting in Berlin-Wedding accuses the bourgeoisie of favoring a Fascist dictatorship. Class warfare is to be fully employed as a tactic in the struggle from now on. The KPD decides to fight all bourgeoisie forces, who now include the Social Democrats, without concession.
June 14 The Vatican signs a concordat with Prussia.
June 17 World Congress on the Work of Women held in Berlin.
June 23 The NSDAP elects two deputies to the Regional Council of Mecklinburg-Schwerin.
June 27 The emergency decree for the protection of the Republic promulgated in June, 1922, is lifted.
June 28 The German Institute for Physics marks Max Planck’s 50th birthday by inaugurating the Max Planck medal. Planck, himself, and Albert Einstein are the first prize winners. July 8
The Young Plan meets with hostility from German business circles. Industrialist Vögler resigns from the Committee of Experts and Central Bank President Schacht calls for resistance.
July 9 Adolf Hitler (NSDAP) and Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP) along with other rightwing groups form a national front to fight against the Young Plan.
July 22 The German steamship Bremen captures the Blue Ribbon for fastest crossing of the North Atlantic.
Summer Hitler places Baldur von Schirach, age 22, at the head of the League of National Socialist Students.
August 2 - 13 The Hague Conference adopts the Young Plan. Germany will pay 112 billion marks over the next 59 years. Germany’s average annual payment drops to 2 billion marks from the 2.5 billion under the Dawes Plan. Scheduled payments are reduced in the first years of the plan. The oversight controls put in place under the Dawes Plan are abolished. The Allies agree to evacuate the Rhineland by July, 1930, five years early, if Germany accepts the new program.
August 2 Electrical equipment manufacturer AEG cedes 25% of its business to General Motors.
August 18 All Quiet on the Western Front the celebrated novel by German author Erich Maria Remarque is banned from the libraries of the Austrian Army.
August 29 The Briand-Stresemann Accord is signed. France agrees to total evacuation of forces from the left bank of the Rhine which will become a demilitarized zone.
The Graf Zeppelin, piloted by Eckener, completes its first round the world tour in 22 days.
August 30 The radiophonic exposition in Berlin coincides with a 50% drop in the price of receivers during the preceding year.
September 2 German expressionist director Paul Leni, age 44, dies in Hollywood.
September 5 The Briand project for a European federation wins the approval of Gustav Stresemann.
The French evacuation from the left bank of the Rhine enters its initial phase.
September 6 A German submarine is commissioned at a shipyard in Cadiz, Spain.
September 7 Belgian Pierre Charles defeats German Franz Diener to retain his European heavyweight boxing championship in a match at Berlin.
September 9 Former Chancellor Gustav Stresemann calls on the nations of Europe to united politically in a speech to the League of Nations.
September 10 Maya the Bee, a children's book by Waldemar Bonsels, is a best seller in Germany and will be translated into 17 languages.
September 22 Communist and Nazi militants exchange gunfire in Berlin.
September 26 The Sklarek brothers are arrested following the discovery of a major financial swindle involving the leaders of the Social Democratic Party.
September 30 Fritz von Opel’s rocket propelled aircraft makes its first flight
October 1 Erwin Rommel is appointed instructor at the Dresden School of Infantry. Infantry Combat, a remarkable manual, will come out of his course preparations.
October 3 Gustav Stresemann, age 51, Minister of Foreign Affairs and former Chancellor of Germany, dies in Berlin. His death will be followed by a radicalization of the German People’s Party (DVP) under the influence of Ernst Scholtz, a partisan of anti-Marxist class struggle. Julius Curtius becomes the new Foreign Affairs Minister.
October 4 The press announces an increase in unemployment insurance premiums and the maintenance of existing benefits.
October 15 Georg Wilhelm Pabst’s film Diary of a Young Girl Lost premiers in Berlin.
October 26 Financier and nationalist leader Alfred Hugenberg and Adolf Hitler organize a series of large rallies to protest against the Young Plan. Hugenberg’s newspaper agitate in favor of the Nazis proposals.
October 27 The NSDAP wins 7% of the vote and elects 6 deputies to the Baden legislature.
October 28 Prince Bernhard von Bülow, Chancellor from 1900 to 1909, dies in Rome at age 80.
October 29 The National Front created in July by Hugenberg and Hitler presents the Reichstag with a petition demanding rejection of the Young Plan. The petition is supported by 4,139,000 signatures, representing more than 10% of the electorate. The Reichstag rejects the measure but is forced to submit it a referendum.
October Hindenburg’s followers contact Henrich Brüning with regards to forming an authoritarian government of the right. November 1
Germany and Poland establish diplomatic relations for the first time since the First World War.
November 6 The Junkers G 38, a giant four engine plane with a wingspan of 44 meters and a capacity of 34 passengers, makes its first flight.
Former Chancellor Max von Baden dies near Constance at age 61.
November 13 The Bank for International Settlements created by the Young Plan opens in Paris.
November 30 French troops evacuate the second zone of the Rhineland.
Alfred Rosenberg, leading Nazi Party theoretician, forms the League to Fight for German Culture to combat, “degenerate art”.
November The NSDAP wins 8.1% of the votes in a regional election at Lübeck.
December 6 Hjalmar Schacht, President of the Central Bank of the Reich, publishes a memorandum opposing the Young Plan.
The NSDAP scores a major victory in the Bavarian municipal elections.
December 8 The NSDAP wins 11.3% of the vote in the Thuringian regional elections and takes its place in the diet beside the German National People’s Party (DNVP).
December 10 Thomas Mann is awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature, "principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature".
Hans von Euler-Chelpin shares the Nobel Prize for Chemistry with Arthur Harden of Great Britain.
December 12 The last British occupation troops in Germany leave their barracks in Wiesbaden.
December 14 Fritz Sauckel announces the, “destruction of the existing State and the advent of the Third Reich”, during a NSDAP demonstration in Weimar, Thuringia. December 18
The Plechtheim Gallery of Berlin marks the 50th birthday of painter Paul Klee with a retrospective of his works.
December 21 Finance Minister Rudolf Hilferding (SPD) resigns after Reichs Central Bank President Schacht refuses to a credit to pay the salaries of civil servants.
December 22 The anti-Young Plan referendum proposed by the NSDAP, the DNVP and the Stahlhelm, which envisages prison penalties for the chancellor and his ministers, gathers support from 13.8% of the enrolled electors far short of the required 50%.
The proposed, “Law Against the Enslavement of the German People” submitted to the Reichstag by Alfred Hugenberg (DNVP) in the name of the National Front is rejected by a vote of 290 to 60. 19 DNVP deputies including Gottfried Treviranus oppose the measure.
December Schism in the ranks of the German National People’s Party; Gottfried Treviranus forms the People’s Conservative Union (Volkskonservative Vereinigung).
The unemployed number 3,000,000.
The German Employers Federation proposes a cut in social security benefits and wages to cleanup government finances.
During the Year Walter Ulbricht succeeds Wilhelm Pieck as leader of the Communist Party (KPD) in Berlin.

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