The World at War

Fiume 1918 - 1947 1918

Fiume 1918 - 1947 Timeline

October 23 Fiume's Croat dominated Austro-Hungarian garrison mutinies.
October 27 Fiume comes under control of the South Slavian Committee of Agram (German:Zagreb).
November 4 The Italian cruiser RN Emanuele Filiberto enters Fiume harbor. The Italian National Council takes control of the city.
November 17 French forces install an Inter-Allied governing committee in Fiume.
The French destroyer Audace lands British and American troops in Fiume.
1919February 7 Italy presents the Paris Peace Conference with a claim to Fiume.
February 11 Yugoslavia asks President Wilson to arbitrate the Fiume dispute.
February 18 Italy refuses to accept mediation of the Fiume dispute and declares that the Croats and Slovenes should be treated as enemy peoples.
March 21 Italy threatens to withdraw from the Paris Peace Conference unless it is given Fiume.
April 14 President Wilson meets privately with the Italian delegation. Wilson insists that Fiume must go to Yugoslavia.
April 26 Premier Orlando and the Italian delegation leave Paris to protest President Wilson's position on the Fiume question.
May 7 Premier Orlando agrees to return to the Paris Conference after receiving a vote of confidence from the Italian parliament and support from public demonstrations.
June 28 The Treaty of Versailles is concluded without addressing the Fiume dispute.
September 12 Blackshirted Arditi legionnaires led by poet Gabriel D'Annunzio seize Fiume.
D'Annunzio declares the Reggenza Italiana del Carnaro (Italian Regency of Carnaro).
September 20 D'Annunzio assumes full power over the city and begins issuing decrees as "Commander of the City of Fiume".
October 16 Italian troops blockade Fiume.
D'Annunzio declares Fiume a "fortress under seige", imposes martial law and threatens to execute opponents of the Italian Fiume cause.
October 26 Fiume votes in favor of annexation to Italy 6999 to 156. Arditi thugs prevent pro-Yugoslav voters from participating in the plebiscite.
1920June 4 The Treaty of Trianon formally ends Hungarian sovereignty over Fiume.
September 8 D'Annunzio collaborates with anarcho-syndicalist Alceste de Ambris in promulgating the Carta del Carnaro, a constitution establishing Fiume as a "Corporate State".
November 12 Italy and Yugoslavia sign the Treaty of Rapallo. Fiume is recognized as an independent "Free City".
November 13 The Free City of Fiume seizes the islands of Arbe and Veglia in the Gulf of Carnaro.
December 3 D'Annunzio declares war on Italy.
December 24 Italian Premier Giovanni Giolitti dispatches an expeditionary corps under General Enrico Couiglia to oust D'Annunzio's regime.
December 28 The Italian battleship Andrea Doria to shells the municipal palace. D'Annunzio abdicates and flees Fiume. Italy proclaims the Stato Libero di Fiume (Free State of Fiume). Riccardo Zanella forms a provisional government.
1921January 5 Fiume withdraws from Arbe and Veglia.
April 24 Fiumans vote in favor of a proposal by Fiume President Riccardo Zanella and Italian Foreign Minister Count Carlo Sforza to create the Free State of Fiume-Rijeka and place the port under control of an Italo-Fiuman-Yugoslav consortium.
October 6 Zanella's government wins the first elections for the Free State assembly.
1922March 3 Italian fascist leader Giuriati deposes Zanella. Fiume retains its Independence. Zanella forms a government in exile in Yugoslavia.
1924January 27 The Treaty of Rome cedes Fiume to Italy and suburban Susak to Yugoslavia.
February 22 Fiume is incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy.
March 16 King Victor Emanuel III of Italy arrives in Fiume aboard the cruiser Brindisi.
1937Gabriel D'Annunzio is appointed President of the Royal Italian Academy.
1938March 1 Gabriel D'Annunzio dies of a cerebral hemorrhage at his exile villa in Italy.
1943September 8 German troops occupy Fiume after Italy signs an armistice with the Allies.
1945May 3 Yugoslav partisans liberate Fiume from German forces.
1947February 10 Treaty of Paris, Italy cedes Fiume to Yugoslavia. Fiume becomes the Croatian city of Rijeka.

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